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Building a Battleship Game using Reach

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Building a Battleship Game using Reach

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prince charles-amachree
·Jun 12, 2022·

25 min read

Table of contents

  • Tutorial: BattleShip

Tutorial: BattleShip

In this tutorial, we'll walk through a simple decentralized application, the Battleship game; where two players have to try to guess the positions of each ship on a Gameboard. More on battleship here.

This tutorial aims to give the required knowledge to build, test, and implement custom blockchain logic easily.

This tutorial assumes you have completed the Rock, Paper, Scissors tutorial here

We assume that you’ll go through this tutorial in a directory named ~/reach/tutorial-battleship:

$ mkdir -p ~/reach/tutorial-battleship

And that you have a copy of Reach installed in ~/reach so you can write

$ ../reach version

You should start by initializing your project. In the current directory start by pasting the below command in the terminal.

$ ../reach init

This initializes a new reach project and creates two files, index.rsh and index.mjs.

Your folder structure should look something like this

folder

The index.rsh file should look something like this.

1.   'reach 0.1';
2.
3.  export const main = Reach.App(() => {
4.   const A = Participant('Alice', {
5.    // Specify Alice's interact interface here
6.   });
7.   const B = Participant('Bob', {
8.     // Specify Bob's interact interface here
9.   });
10.  init();
11.  // The first one to publish deploys the contract
12.  A.publish();
13.  commit();
14.  // The second one to publish always attaches
15.  B.publish();
16.  commit();
17.  // write your program here
19.  exit();
20. });

Let's break down the above code block.

Line 1. specifies the version of reach that the compiler will use.

Lines 3 creates a reach module and exports it as main. The syntax allows other reach contracts to import different reach modules and use their code.

Lines 4 and 7 define the various participants of the application and store the participants "Alice" and "Bob" in constants "A" and "B" respectively. That is, it tells the reach program who has access to the contract, what methods they can call and what actions they can perform.

Line 10 initializes the contract and allows for custom logic.

Line 12 and 15 are used to make private variables of each participant public and in 13 and 16, the "commit" statement ends the current consensus step and allows more local steps.

Lets look at the index.mjs file next

1. import {loadStdlib} from '@reach-sh/stdlib';
2. import * as backend from './build/index.main.mjs';
3. const stdlib = loadStdlib(process.env);
4.
5. const startingBalance = stdlib.parseCurrency(100);
6.
7. const [ accAlice, accBob ] =
8.  await stdlib.newTestAccounts(2, startingBalance);
9. console.log('Hello, Alice and Bob!');
10.
11. console.log('Launching...');
12. const ctcAlice = accAlice.contract(backend);
13. const ctcBob = accBob.contract(backend, ctcAlice.getInfo());
14.
15. console.log('Starting backends...');
16. await Promise.all([
15.  backend.Alice(ctcAlice, {
16.    ...stdlib.hasRandom,
17.    // implement Alice's interact object here
18.  }),
19.  backend.Bob(ctcBob, {
20.    ...stdlib.hasRandom,
21.    // implement Bob's interact object here
22.  }),
23. ]);

console.log('Goodbye, Alice and Bob!');

The above code block is not "reach" specific. For simplicity's sake, we will breeze through the code execution.

At the top, we import the required modules loadstdlib from @reach/-sh/stdlib and the reach compiled backend. We create a starting balance on line 5, then initialize two accounts we use for testing accAlice and accBob on line 7. We make accAlice deploy the contract and accBob attaches to that contract on lines 12 & 13. On lines 16 to 22, we implement both Alice's and Bob's interact objects.

This is now enough for Reach to compile and run our program. Let's try running

../reach run

Reach should now build and launch a Docker container for this application. Since the application doesn't do anything, you'll just see a lot of diagnostic messages though, so that's not very exciting

Battleship custom logic

Let's start by defining the processes and steps that will take place in the application.

  • Two participants A and B will connect to the contract.
  • A sets a wager and a deadline and pays the wager amount into the contract.
  • B accepts the wager and pays into the contract
  • Both participants take turns placing their ships on a board with 100 spots.
  • The contract makes sure that A doesn't know the contents of B's board and vice versa.
  • A takes a turn trying to guess the position of the ships placed on B's board.
  • B takes their turn trying to hit the ships on A's board.
  • The game ends when all the ships on any player's board have been hit.

Implementation

Now we should implement the code logic for our index.rsh and index.mjs.
We start by adding the new interface objects that both participants have in common.

1. const common = {
2.   getBoard: Fun([], Array(UInt, 100)),
3.   Ship: Array(Bool, 15),
4.   updateShip: Fun([], Null),
5.   seeOutcome: Fun([Bool], Null),
6.   informTimeout: Fun([], Null),
7.   getShip: Fun([], Array(Bool, 15)),
8.   getHand: Fun([], UInt),
9. };

The common object contains all the functions and methods that both participants will inherit and use.

  • getBoard is a function that gets an array of 100 UInts that contains the positions of the ships, which are represented by "1".
  • Ship is a variable that is used to store an array of booleans that will represent the state of all the ships that have been hit. "False" if the ship has not been hit and "true" if has been hit.
  • updateShip updates the Ship and it is only called if a ship has been hit on the board.
  • seeOutcome is used to display the winner of the game.
  • informTimeout is used to notify the participants a timeout occured, and tell them they're taking too long to respond.
  • getShip gets the updated Ship variable from the front.
  • getHand this is then used to guess the position of a ship on another player's game board.

We're going to represent the cost of a wager with UInt (Unsigned Integer). The deployer will set this value after deploying the contract. We'll also represent the duration of a deadline with UInt.

Attacher has a function that lets them view and accepts the wager set by the deployer. They'll have the option of refusing it and thus terminating the contract.

From here we define the player's interact functions and create helper functions.

13. export const main = Reach.App(() => {
14.  const Alice = Participant("Alice", {
15.    ...common,
16.    wager: UInt,
17.    deadline: UInt,
18.  });
19.  const Bob = Participant("Bob", {
20.    ...common,
21.    acceptWager: Fun([UInt], Null),
22.  });
23.  init();
24.
25.  const informTimeout = () => {
26.    each([Alice, Bob], () => {
27.      interact.informTimeout();
28.    });
29.  };
30.  const countShips = (ships) => Array.count(ships, (item) => {
31.    return item == true;
32.  });
33.  const winner = (AliceShips, BobShips) => AliceShips[14] ? true : BobShips[14] ? false : true
34.
  • Lines 14 to 18 create Participant Alice and give it its participant interface.
  • Lines 19 to 21 define the participant Bob and give it its participant interface
  • Line 15 and 20 use the spread operator to add all the properties of common to the respective participant classes
  • Line 25 initializes a function informTimeout that when called will call each participant's timeout Function that was defined in the common object.
  • Line 30 initializes a function countShips that takes in an array of booleans and counts the number of true elements, to help determine if all the ships have been hit.
  • Line 33 initializes a function winner that calculates the winner of the game.

The application is beginning to take shape. We have defined the parameters and helper functions that will be used throughout the reach contract, now we begin the implementation.

36.  Alice.only(() => {
37.    const board = declassify(interact.getBoard());
38.    const wager = declassify(interact.wager);
39.    const deadline = declassify(interact.deadline);
40.    const shipAlice = declassify(interact.Ship);
41.  });
42.
43.  Alice.publish(wager, deadline, shipAlice).pay(wager);
44.  commit();
45.
46.  Bob.only(() => {
47.    const board = declassify(interact.getBoard());
48.    interact.acceptWager(wager);
49.  });
50.
51.   
52.   // Make sure neither parties have acces to each other board
53.  
54.  unknowable(Bob, Alice(board));
55.  unknowable(Alice, Bob(board));
56.
57.
58.  Bob.pay(wager).timeout(relativeTime(deadline), () =>
59.    closeTo(Alice, informTimeout)
60.  );
61.
  • Lines 36 to 42 indicate that it is an action that only Alice performs. Alice gets the board, wager, deadline and AliceShip from the front end of our application.
  • Line 43 Alice publishes the wager, deadline, and shipAlice variables, and makes them available to the entire application. Alice also pays the wager amount gotten from the front-end into the contract, by appending the pay method to the publish.

If you'd notice alice makes every other variable available but, keeps the board to only herself. The reason is Bob isn't supposed to know what is on Alice's board and vice versa. So the board of each participant mustn't be shared.

  • Lines 46 to 49 indicate an action that only Bob performs. Bob gets the board from the front end and keeps it to himself by not publishing it. Bob also informs the front-end that the wager should be accepted by calling interact.acceptWager(wager).
  • Lines 54 and 55 do a check and make sure that neither Alice nor Bob know the contents of the opponent's board. Just an extra layer of security to ensure honesty.
  • Line 58 Bob is prompted to pay the wager amount specified by Alice if he accepts the wager. The timeout method ensures that if Bob refuses to pay the wager or for some reason is unable to pay; when the timer runs out, the code block will be executed.

Moving forward to the main application logic, we have a loop that will run until the application execution ends and a winner is decided. It will look something like this.

62.  var statement = [true, 0, 0, shipAlice, shipAlice];
63.  invariant(balance() == 2 * wager);
64.  while (statement[0]) {
65.    const [isTrue, aliceShipCount, BobShipsCount, A, B] = statement
66.    commit();
67.
68.    // Get Alice's Hand
69.    Alice.only(() => {
70.      const handAlice = declassify(interact.getHand());
71.    });
72.    Alice.publish(handAlice);
73.    commit();
74.
75.    // Bob Plays his Hand
76.    // Compare with bobs Board and check if it's been hit
77.
78.    Bob.only(() => {
79.      const bobHand = declassify(interact.getHand());
80.      const BobVal = board[handAlice % 100] == 1;
81.      if (BobVal) {
82.        interact.updateShip();
83.      }
84.      const BobShips = declassify(interact.getShip());
85.      check(countShips(BobShips) <= BobShipsCount + 1, "Dishonest front")
86.    });
87.    Bob.publish(bobHand, BobShips);
88.    commit();
89.
90.    // Alice Checks if the she has been hit and then publishes the result
91.    Alice.only(() => {
92.      const val = board[bobHand % 100] == 1;
93.      if (val) {
94.        interact.updateShip();
95.      }
96.      const AliceShips = declassify(interact.getShip());
97.      check(countShips(AliceShips) <= aliceShipCount + 1, "Dishonest front")
98.
99.    });
100.    Alice.publish(AliceShips);
101.
102.    const countBob = countShips(BobShips)
103.    const countAlice = countShips(AliceShips);
104.
105.    statement = [
106.      AliceShips[14] || BobShips[14] ? false : true,
107.      countAlice,
108.      countBob,
109.      AliceShips, BobShips
110.    ]
111.    continue;
112.  }

NOTE: REACH VARIABLES ARE IMMUTABLE BY DEFAULT AND CAN NOT BE CHANGED EXCEPT PRECEDING THE CONTINUATION OF A LOOP (i.e BEFORE A CONTINUE). VARs CAN ONLY BE DECLARED AT THE BEGINING OF A LOOP. THIS RESTRICTION IS PUT IN PLACE FOR SECURITY REASONS
Moving on in our application implementation...

  • Line 62 declares a Tuple named statement that stores different variables used thorough out the execution of the code.
  • Line 63 declares the invariant block of the loop. This is a condition that will remain true regardless of the steps taken in the loop. As for our use, we declare that the balance in the contract will always be equal to twice the wager amount.
  • Line 64 begins the execution of the while loop and ends in line 112.
  • Line 65 destructures the statement variable and assigns individual variables to each parameter.
  • Lines 69 to 72 get Alice's hand and publish it so Bob can use it to compare with his board.
  • Lines 78 to 87, Bob gets his hand from the front end as well as doing a comparison to check if Alice's hand was correct. If it's correct Bob updates his Ship variable. After all the steps Bob publishes both the updated value of the ship and his hand, that is BobShips and BobHand.
  • Lines 91 to 100, Alice also does a comparison with her board and Bob's hand. After all the checks and comparisons, Alice publishes the "ship" variable to be used elsewhere in the application.
  • Lines 102 and 103 use the function declared earlier on line 30, to count and store the number of ships that have been hit on each participant board.
  • Lines 105 to 110 show how we mutate the statement variable and input new values.

That is all the logic needed in the loop, for the game to run.

Our application needs a way to determine the winner and pay the total funds to the winner. We will implement that below.

114.  const [isTrue, aliceShipCount, BobShipsCount, AliceShips, BobShips] = statement
115.
116.  const outcome = winner(AliceShips, BobShips);
117.  transfer(2 * wager).to(outcome ? Alice : Bob);
118.  commit();
119.
120.  each([Alice, Bob], () => {
121.    interact.seeOutcome(outcome);
122.  });
123. });
  • Line 114 destructures all the values from the statement variable.
  • On line 116 we determine the outcome of the game and return stores a "true" if Alice wins and a "false" if Bob wins
  • Line 117 transfers the total amount in the contract to the winner and then performs a commit.
  • Lines 120 t0 123, each participant is notified of the outcome of the game.

And that's it with our blockchain implementation.

Running...

  ../reach compile

we should see an output on the terminal like this

Verifying knowledge assertions
Verifying for generic connector
  Verifying when ALL participants are honest
  Verifying when NO participants are honest
Checked 43 theorems; No failures!

Bringing the application together; will look something like this...

1.  "reach 0.1";
2.
3. const common = {
4.  getBoard: Fun([], Array(UInt, 100)),
5.  Ship: Array(Bool, 15),
6.  updateShip: Fun([], Null),
7.  seeOutcome: Fun([Bool], Null),
8.  informTimeout: Fun([], Null),
9.  getShip: Fun([], Array(Bool, 15)),
10.  getHand: Fun([], UInt),
11. };
12.
13. export const main = Reach.App(() => {
14.  const Alice = Participant("Alice", {
15.    ...common,
16.    wager: UInt,
17.    deadline: UInt,
18.  });
19.  const Bob = Participant("Bob", {
20.    ...common,
21.    acceptWager: Fun([UInt], Null),
22.  });
23.  init();
24.
25.  const informTimeout = () => {
26.    each([Alice, Bob], () => {
27.      interact.informTimeout();
28.    });
29.  };
30.  const countShips = (ships) => Array.count(ships, (item) => {
31.    return item == true;
32.  });
33.  const winner = (AliceShips, BobShips) => AliceShips[14] ? true : BobShips[14] ? false : true
34.
35.
36.  Alice.only(() => {
37.    const board = declassify(interact.getBoard());
38.    const wager = declassify(interact.wager);
39.    const deadline = declassify(interact.deadline);
40.    const shipAlice = declassify(interact.Ship);
41.  });
42.
43.  Alice.publish(wager, deadline, shipAlice).pay(wager);
44.  commit();
45.
46.  Bob.only(() => {
47.    const board = declassify(interact.getBoard());
48.    interact.acceptWager(wager);
49.  });
50.
51.  /** 
52.   * Make sure neither parties have acces to each other board
53.   */
54.  unknowable(Bob, Alice(board));
55.  unknowable(Alice, Bob(board));
56.
57.
58.  Bob.pay(wager).timeout(relativeTime(deadline), () =>
59.    closeTo(Alice, informTimeout)
60.  );
61.
62.  var statement = [true, 0, 0, shipAlice, shipAlice];
63.  invariant(balance() == 2 * wager);
64.  while (statement[0]) {
65.    const [isTrue, aliceShipCount, BobShipsCount, A, B] = statement
66.    commit();
67.
68.    // Get Alice's Hand
69.    Alice.only(() => {
70.      const handAlice = declassify(interact.getHand());
71.    });
72.    Alice.publish(handAlice);
73.    commit();
74.
75.    // Bob Plays his Hand
76.    // Compare with bobs Board and check if it's been hit
77.
78.    Bob.only(() => {
79.      const bobHand = declassify(interact.getHand());
80.      const BobVal = board[handAlice % 100] == 1;
81.      if (BobVal) {
82.        interact.updateShip();
83.      }
84.      const BobShips = declassify(interact.getShip());
85.      check(countShips(BobShips) <= BobShipsCount + 1, "Dishonest front")
86.    });
87.    Bob.publish(bobHand, BobShips);
88.    commit();
89.
90.    // Alice Checks if the she has been hit and then publishes the result
91.    Alice.only(() => {
92.      const val = board[bobHand % 100] == 1;
93.      if (val) {
94.        interact.updateShip();
95.      }
96.      const AliceShips = declassify(interact.getShip());
97.      check(countShips(AliceShips) <= aliceShipCount + 1, "Dishonest front")
98.
99.    });
100.    Alice.publish(AliceShips);
101.
102.    const countBob = countShips(BobShips)
103.    const countAlice = countShips(AliceShips);
104.
105.    statement = [
106.      AliceShips[14] || BobShips[14] ? false : true,
107.      countAlice,
108.      countBob,
109.      AliceShips, BobShips
110.    ]
111.    continue;
112.  }
113.
114.  const [isTrue, aliceShipCount, BobShipsCount, AliceShips, BobShips] = statement
115.
116.  const outcome = winner(AliceShips, BobShips);
117.  transfer(2 * wager).to(outcome ? Alice : Bob);
118.  commit();
119.
120.  each([Alice, Bob], () => {
121.    interact.seeOutcome(outcome);
122.  });
123. });

Assertion Insertion

Due to the simplicity of the program, there's no need for assertions in the code.

Possible Additions

Our code works perfectly fine as it is now. But can be implemented and represented better by using APIs instead of Participants for the player interactions

Testing

We test our application by editing the index.mjs file that was created when we ran

../reach init

We define our test data to use for simulating user input and data

4. export const Data = [
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
];
5. export const playerChoice = [
  0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8,
];

On the Data array "0"s represent spaces on the board without ships and the "1"s represent ships.

The player choice array contains all the moves the test suite will guess on the board.

9. const stdlib = loadStdlib();
10. const startingBalance = stdlib.parseCurrency(100);
11.
12. const accAlice = await stdlib.newTestAccount(startingBalance);
13. const accBob = await stdlib.newTestAccount(startingBalance);
14.
15. const getBalance = async (who) =>
16.  stdlib.formatCurrency(await stdlib.balanceOf(who), 4);
17. const beforeAlice = await getBalance(accAlice);
18. const beforeBob = await getBalance(accBob);
19.
20. const ctcAlice = accAlice.contract(backend);
21. const ctcBob = accBob.contract(backend, ctcAlice.getInfo());

The above code block does the following

  • We load the reach standard library on line 9
  • On line 10 we create a starting balance for each player
  • On lines 12 and 13 we create two test accounts and fund them programmatically
  • On line 15 we create a getBalance helper function we use later in the application.
  • On lines 17 and 18 we get the balances of the accounts before they interact with the contract we wrote in the index.rsh.
  • On line 20 participant `Alice deploys the contract and Bob attaches to that contract on line 21

Now let's define the equivalent of the common variable in our index.rsh file. We name it Player instead and it will mirror the common variable. The Player function will return an object and will be spread to both participant's interact objects.

1. const Player = () => {
2.  let Ship = [false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,];
3.  let i =0
4.  const getBoard = () => {
5.    console.log(`Bob asked to give the preimage.`);
6.    return Data;
7.  };
8.  const updateShip = () => {
9.    for (let singleShip in Ship) {
10.      if (Ship[singleShip] === false) {
11.        Ship[singleShip] = true;
12.        break;
13.      }
14.    }
15.  };
16.  const getShip = () => {
17.    return Ship;
18.  };
19.  const informTimeout = () => {
20.    console.log(`someone observed a timeout`);
21.  };
22.  const seeOutcome = () => {
23.    console.log(`someone saw outcome `);
24.  };
25.  const getHand = ()=>{
26.    i++
27.    return  playerChoice[(i-1)%10]
28.  }
29.  return {
30.    Ship,
31.    getBoard,
32.    updateShip,
33.    informTimeout,
34.    seeOutcome,
35.    getShip,
36.    getHand
37.  };
38. };

In the code block above, we have a factory function that returns all the needed parameters which we defined during the implementation of the reach code. we have

  • Ship variable that will be updated when given the orders from the contract.
  • getBoard function that returns the player board with the position where ships are placed.
  • updateShip which updates the Ship variable by changing a single value from false to true.
  • informTimeout which just logs a warning to the console.
  • seeOutcome that prints the outcome of the game to the console.
  • getShip which is used in the contract to determine the current state of the Ship variable.
  • getHand that gets the current hand of the player.

We start interacting with the contract and fill up the participant's interface with the mirror of the smart contract equivalent, and wrap it in a "promise.all" statement to make sure they both run and resolve simultaneously.

61. await Promise.all([
62.  backend.Alice(ctcAlice, {
63.    ...Player(),
64.    amt: stdlib.parseCurrency(25),
65.    deadline: 10,
66.    wager: stdlib.parseCurrency(10),
67.  }),
68.  backend.Bob(ctcBob, {
69.    ...Player(),
70.    acceptWager: async () => {
71.      if (Math.random() >= 1) {
72.        for (let i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
73.          console.log(`  Bob takes his sweet time...`);
74.          await stdlib.wait(1);
75.        }
76.      } else {
77.          await stdlib.wait(1);
78.        console.log(`Bob accepts the wager .`);
79.      }
80.    },
81.  }),
82. ]);

The final applcaition should look like this:

1. import { loadStdlib } from "@reach-sh/stdlib";
2. import * as backend from "./build/index.main.mjs";
3. 
4. export const Data = [
  1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
  0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
];
5. export const playerChoice = [
  0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8
];
6. 
7. const stdlib = loadStdlib();
8. const startingBalance = stdlib.parseCurrency(100);
9. 
10. const accAlice = await stdlib.newTestAccount(startingBalance);
11. const accBob = await stdlib.newTestAccount(startingBalance);
12. 
13. const getBalance = async (who) =>
14.   stdlib.formatCurrency(await stdlib.balanceOf(who), 4);
15. const beforeAlice = await getBalance(accAlice);
16. const beforeBob = await getBalance(accBob);
17. 
18. const ctcAlice = accAlice.contract(backend);
19. const ctcBob = accBob.contract(backend, ctcAlice.getInfo());
20. const Player = () => {
21.   let Ship = [false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,false,];
22.   let i =0
23.   const getBoard = () => {
24.     console.log(`Bob asked to give the preimage.`);
25.     return Data;
26.   };
27.   const updateShip = () => {
28.     for (let singleShip in Ship) {
29.       if (Ship[singleShip] === false) {
30.         Ship[singleShip] = true;
31.         break;
32.       }
33.     }
34.   };
35.   const getShip = () => {
36.     return Ship;
37.   };
38.   const informTimeout = () => {
39.     console.log(`someone observed a timeout`);
40.   };
41.   const seeOutcome = () => {
42.     console.log(`someone saw outcome `);
43.   };
44.   const getHand = ()=>{
45.     i++
46.     return  playerChoice[(i-1)%10]
47.   }
48.   return {
49.     Ship,
50.     getBoard,
51.     updateShip,
52.     informTimeout,
53.     seeOutcome,
54.     getShip,
55.     getHand
56.   };
57. };
58. 
59. await Promise.all([
60.   backend.Alice(ctcAlice, {
61.     ...Player(),
62.     amt: stdlib.parseCurrency(25),
63.     deadline: 10,
64.     wager: stdlib.parseCurrency(10),
65.   }),
66.   backend.Bob(ctcBob, {
67.     ...Player(),
68.     acceptWager: async () => {
69.       if (Math.random() >= 1) {
70.         for (let i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
71.           console.log(`  Bob takes his sweet time...`);
72.           await stdlib.wait(1);
73.         }
74.       } else {
75.           await stdlib.wait(1);
76.         console.log(`Bob accepts the wager .`);
77.       }
78.     },
79.   }),
80. ]);
81. 
82. const afterAlice = await getBalance(accAlice);
83. const afterBob = await getBalance(accBob);
84.
85. console.log(`Alice went from ${beforeAlice} to ${afterAlice}.`);
86. console.log(`Bob went from ${beforeBob} to ${afterBob}.`);
87. //

Now run

../reach run

That is it. You should have an implementation of battleship and a test file running on your local machine.

Further Learning

If you want to implement a more complex front-end Application using a front-end library (REACT, Vue, Angular, etc). Continue to get an idea of how reach can be used when building fullstack blockchain applications.

NOTE: To fully utilize this section you need to have the repo locally link

Now we have a complete contract backend and test suite, now we can write the frontend. You can use any frontend library of your choice. In our case, we have chosen to use React.
In the React App navigate to battleship-main/src/factories/playerFactory.js. We are defining the logic for the participants

1. import Gameboard from "./gameboardFactory";
2. import * as backend from "../build/index.main.mjs";
3. import { loadStdlib } from "@reach-sh/stdlib";
4. 
5. // Helper Funtions
6. 
7. const callbackFn = () => {
8.   let fn;
9.   const setFn = (fxn) => {
10.     fn = fxn;
11.     console.log("fxn", fxn);
12.   };
13.   const callFn = (val) => {
14.     fn(val);
15.   };
16.   return {
17.     setFn,
18.     callFn,
19.   };
20. };
21. const Fxn = callbackFn();
22. const Waiter = callbackFn();
23. 
24. const reach = loadStdlib((process.env.REACH_CONNECTOR_MODE = "ALGO"));
25. 
26. // Participant classes
27.  
28. class Player {
29.   constructor(name, acc) {
30.     this.name = name;
31.     this.ctc = null;
32.     this.Ship = [
33.       false,
34.       false,
35.       false,
36.       false,
37.       false,
38.       false,
39.      false,
40.      false,
41.      false,
42.      false,
43.      false,
44.      false,
45.      false,
46.      false,
47.      false,
48.    ];
49.    this.acc = acc;
50.    this.gameBoard = new Gameboard();
51.  }
52.  updateShip() {
53.    for (let singleShip in this.Ship) {
54.      if (this.Ship[singleShip] === false) {
55.        this.Ship[singleShip] = true;
56.        break;
57.      }
58.    }
59.  }
60.  getBoard() {
61.    return this.gameBoard.board.map((item) => {
62.      if (item.hasShip !== false) return 1;
63.      return 0;
64.    });
65.  }
66.  getShip() {
67.    return this.Ship;
68.  }
69.  informTimeOut() {
70.    console.log("You observed a timeout");
71.  }
72.  setPlayer(Bool) {
73.    this.currentPlayer = Bool;
74.  }
75.  async getHand() {
76.    console.log(`Please Play your hand ${this.name}`);
77.    if (this.name.toLowerCase() !== "computer") {
78.      alert("All systems go! go! go!, Fireeeeee");
79.    }
80.    const hand = await new Promise((resolveHandP) => {
81.      if (this.name.toLowerCase() === "computer") {
82.        Waiter.callFn(true);
83.      }
84.      this.resolveHandP = resolveHandP;
85.      Fxn.setFn(resolveHandP);
86.    });
87.    return hand;
88.  }
89.  async waitTillHandGot() {
90.    const hand = await new Promise((resolveHandP) => {
91.      Waiter.setFn(resolveHandP);
92.    });
93.    return hand;
94.  }
95.  playHand(hand) {
96.    console.log("hand,", hand);
97.    Fxn.callFn(hand);
98.    if (this.name.toLowerCase() === "computer") {
99.      alert(
100.        "Enemy has fired, we are sendig the intel to HQ\n Please do not shoot until instructed to"
101.      );
102.    }
103.   }
104.  fireShot(location, gameboard) {
105.    if (gameboard.opponentBoard()[location] === "empty") {
106.      gameboard.receiveShot(location);
107.    }
108.  }
109. }
110.
111.
112. // Deployer class which inherits from general player class
113.  
114. export class Deployer extends Player {
115.  setWager(wager) {
116.    this.wager = wager;
117.    console.log(this);
118.  }
119.   async deploy(reach) {
120.     this.ctc = this.acc.contract(backend);
121.     this.wager = reach.parseCurrency(this.wager); // UInt
122.     this.deadline = {
123.       ETH: 10,
124.       ALGO: 100,
125.       CFX: 1000,
126.     }[reach.connector]; // UInt
127.     backend.Alice(this.ctc, this);
128.     alert("Contract is being deployed... Please wait");
129.     const ctcInfoStr = JSON.stringify(await this.ctc.getInfo(), null, 2);
130.     console.log("info", ctcInfoStr);
131.     alert("Contract successfully deployed, Please wait for someone to attach");
132.     this.ctcInfoStr = ctcInfoStr;
133.   }
134. }
135. 
136. export class Attacher extends Player {
137.   acceptWager(wagerAtomic) {
138.     const wager = reach.formatCurrency(wagerAtomic, 4);
139.     console.log("Accepted Wager, ", wager);
140.   }
141. 
142.   async attach(ctcInfoStr) {
143.     this.ctc = this.acc.contract(backend, JSON.parse(ctcInfoStr));
144.     backend.Bob(this.ctc, this);
145.     await this.ctc.getInfo();
146.     alert(
147.       "Contract has been sucessfully attached to, Please wait till you are given orders to fire"
148.     );
149.   }
150. }
151. 
152. export default Player;

We'll navigate to the battleship-main/src/components/game_window/GameWindow.js which houses the initial game logic

1.  import React, {
2.   useState,
3.   useContext,
4.   useEffect,
5.   useRef,
6.   useCallback,
7. } from "react";
8. import Init from "./Init";
9. import GameSetup from "./GameSetup";
10. import GameStart from "./GameStart";
11. import WinnerScreen from "./WinnerScreen";
12. import { store } from "../../GameController";
13. import {
14.   MainWindow,
15.   VolumeContainer,
16. } from "../styled_components/gameControllerStyles";
17. import music from "../../assets/sounds/music.mp3";
18. import backgroundSound from "../../assets/sounds/background_sound.mp3";
19. import fireShot from "../../assets/sounds/fire_shot.mp3";
20. import shotHit from "../../assets/sounds/shot_hit.mp3";
21. import shotMiss from "../../assets/sounds/shot_miss.mp3";
22. import VolumeOn from "../icons/VolumeOn";
23. import VolumeOff from "../icons/VolumeOff";
24. 
25. import secret from "../../secret";
26. 
27. 
28.  // REACH
29. 
30. import { loadStdlib } from "@reach-sh/stdlib";
31. import { ALGO_MyAlgoConnect as MyAlgoConnect } from "@reach-sh/stdlib";
32. const reach = loadStdlib((process.env.REACH_CONNECTOR_MODE = "ALGO-live"));
33. 
34. reach.setWalletFallback(
35.   reach.walletFallback({
36.     providerEnv: "TestNet",
37.     MyAlgoConnect,
38.   })
39. );
40. 
41. export default function GameWindow() {
42.   const { state, dispatch } = useContext(store);
43.   const { timeline, winner } = state;
44.   const [dismount, setDismount] = useState(false);
45.   const [volume, setVolume] = useState(true);
46. 
47.   // pass to props to avoiding directly passing a setState function
48.   const setVolumeProps = (value) => {
49.     value
50.       ? (musicPlayer.current.volume = 0.5)
51.       : (musicPlayer.current.volume = 0);
52.     setVolume(value);
53.   };
54. 
55.   const musicPlayer = useRef();
56.   // I provide two sound players so sound effects can "overlap"
57.   const soundPlayer = useRef();
58.   const soundPlayer2 = useRef();
59. 
60.   // cancel animation coming into this component
61.   useEffect(() => {
62.     setDismount(false);
63.     console.log("hi");
64.   }, [setDismount]);
65. 
66.   useEffect(() => {
67.     (async () => {
68.       try {
69.         const newAccount = await reach.newAccountFromMnemonic(secret);
70.         console.log("newAccount", newAccount);
71. 
72.         dispatch({ type: "SET_ACC", payload: newAccount });
73.         dispatch({ type: "SET_BOB", payload: newAccount });
74.       } catch (error) {
75.         console.error(error);
76.       }
77.     })();
78.   }, []);
79. 
80.   // to avoid passing a setState directly, pass this helper function
81.   const setDismountProp = (state) => {
82.     setDismount(state);
83.   };
84. 
85.   const playBgSound = useCallback(
86.     (sound, customVolume) => {
87.       if (volume) {
88.         const newVol = customVolume || 0.5;
89.         if (!musicPlayer.current.paused) musicPlayer.current.pause();
90.         musicPlayer.current.src =
91.           sound === "music"
92.             ? music
93.             : sound === "bgSound"
94.             ? backgroundSound
95.             : null;
96.         musicPlayer.current.load();
97.         musicPlayer.current.volume = newVol;
98.         musicPlayer.current.play();
99.       }
100.     },
101.    [volume]
102.  );
103.
104.  const playSound = useCallback(
105.    (sound, customVolume) => {
106.      if (volume) {
107.        const newVol = customVolume || 0.5;
108.        let player = soundPlayer;
109.        if (!soundPlayer.current.paused) {
110.          player = soundPlayer2;
111.        }
112.        player.current.src =
113.          sound === "fireShot"
114.            ? fireShot
115.            : sound === "shotMiss"
116.            ? shotMiss
117.            : sound === "shotHit"
118.            ? shotHit
119.            : null;
120.        player.current.load();
121.        player.current.volume = newVol;
122.        player.current.play();
123.      }
124.    },
125.    [volume]
126.  );
127.
128.  const checkIfMusicPaused = () => {
129.    return musicPlayer.current.paused;
130.  };
131.
132.  const fadeOutMusic = () => {
133.    const fadeOut = setInterval(() => {
134.      if (musicPlayer.current.volume <= 0.04) {
135.        musicPlayer.current.volume = 0;
136.        clearInterval(fadeOut);
137.      } else {
138.        musicPlayer.current.volume = musicPlayer.current.volume - 0.03;
139.      }
140.    }, 30);
141.  };
142.
143.  // conditionally render based on the app state "timeline"
144.  const renderChild = (timeline) => {
145.    return timeline === "init" ? (
146.      <Init
147.        playBgSound={playBgSound}
148.        checkIfMusicPaused={checkIfMusicPaused}
149.        dismount={dismount}
150.        setDismount={setDismountProp}
151.      />
152.    ) : timeline === "setup" ? (
153.      <GameSetup
154.        dismount={dismount}
155.        fadeOutMusic={fadeOutMusic}
156.        setDismount={setDismountProp}
157.      />
158.    ) : winner ? (
159.      <WinnerScreen playBgSound={playBgSound} />
160.    ) : !winner ? (
161.      <GameStart
162.        playSound={playSound}
163.        playBgSound={playBgSound}
164.        setDismount={setDismount}
165.      />
166.    ) : null;
167.  };
168.
169.  return (
170.    <MainWindow>
171.      <VolumeContainer timeline={timeline}>
172.        {volume ? (
173.          <VolumeOn setVolume={setVolumeProps} />
174.        ) : (
175.          <VolumeOff setVolume={setVolumeProps} />
176.        )}
177.      </VolumeContainer>
178.      {renderChild(timeline)}
179.      <>
180.        <audio onEnded={() => musicPlayer.current.play()} ref={musicPlayer} />
181.        <audio ref={soundPlayer} />
182.        <audio ref={soundPlayer2} />
183.      </>
184.    </MainWindow>
185.  );
186. }

The front-end structure is fairly complex so you'll have to properly go through the repository to get the pieces together.

Discussion

Congrats on finishing this tutorial. You implemented the battleship game that runs on the blockchain yourself.

If you found this tutorial rewarding please let us know on the Discord Community.

Thanks!!

 
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